Which spring steel wire is suitable for which application?

Spring steel wire compared to other steels has a higher strength and can be up to a certain voltage ( Elastic limit “Rp” ) are deformed. With this property, the spring steel wire returns to its original position after it has been relieved of stress, without being permanently deformed. For example, spring steel wire EN 10270-3-1.4310 has one tensile strenght from 1250 to 2200 N / mm² compared to 360 N / mm² for structural steel S235JR. The decisive difference here is the yield strength ratio, ie the ratio of Elastic limit tensile strength of the material, which is normally used in spring steels> 85% lies. The elasticity as the main characteristic of a spring steel wire is achieved by a special alloy: silicon (Si), manganese (Mn), chromium (Cr), vanadium (V), molybdenum (Mo) and nickel (Ni) are added in the manufacturing process.
Spring steel wires have a high tensile strength and a high elastic limit. This is made possible by the modulus of elasticity (Modulus of elasticity). To help in the manufacture of cold-formed Compression springs , Tension springs , Leg springs and bent wire parts to avoid overloading or breaks, the spring steel wires must have a very good plastic deformation capacity, which is why most spring steel wires are only heat-treated after the forming technique.

Druckfeder bestaendig gegen Rost - Gutekunst FedernThe following are the main properties of spring steel wires for the manufacture of Compression springs , Tension spring , Leg springs and Security elements at Gutekunst feathers listed. In addition to the standard spring steel EN 10270-1 SH and DH, the dynamically demanding valve spring wire VDSiCr (Oteva 70) and the corrosion-resistant stainless steel grades 1.4310, 1.4401 and 1.4568, the non-magnetic spring bronze CuSn6 and the copper-beryllium spring steel CuB2 are also described here, as well as the Heat-resistant spring steel grades Nimonic 90, Inconel X-750 and Hastelloy C4. The price index (base 100) also shows the price ratio of the spring materials presented.

Important spring steel wires and their properties:

Standard spring steel

Spring steel type

EN 10270-1-SH

Material number
description 1.1200 is a carbon-based spring steel that cannot be used in corrosive or extreme environments without additional Surface treatment can be used. The spring steel EN 10270-1-SH is often used for tensile, compression and torsion springs with low static loads, dynamic loads selected from a wire thickness of 1.8 mm. The working temperature should not exceed 80 ° C. The durability can through Shot peening can be increased.
Areas of application 1.1200 is suitable for the most common compression springs, tension springs, leg springs and bent wire parts with and without surface treatment.
Quality standard Din EN 10270-1
Strength (RM) 1200 to 2940 N / mm²
Max. Operating temperature 80 ° C
modulus of elasticity 206 kN / mm²
G module 81,500 N / mm²
density 7.85 kg / dm³
spec. electr. resistance 0.2 Ωmm² / m
Price index (base 100) 100

Spring steel type

EN 10270-1-DH

Material number
description 1.1211 is an equally carbon-based spring steel that cannot be used in corrosive or extreme environments without additional surface treatment. The spring steel EN 10270-1DH is also used for statically highly stressed tension, compression and torsion springs up to 1.8 mm wire thickness. The material 1.1211 is also suitable for medium dynamic loads. The working temperature should not exceed 80 ° C. The durability can be increased by shot peening.
Areas of application 1.1211 is suitable for the most common compression springs, tension springs, leg springs and bent wire parts with and without surface treatment.
Quality standard Din EN 10270-1
Strength (RM) 1200 to 3520 N / mm²
Max. Operating temperature 80 ° C
modulus of elasticity 206 kN / mm²
G module 81,500 N / mm²
density 7.85 kg / dm³
spec. electr. resistance 0.2 Ωmm² / m
Price index (base 100) 100

Special spring steel wires

For special stresses and properties, such as non-magnetic and increased corrosion resistance, heat resistance or Insensitivity to cold , special spring steel wires are used for the manufacture of the Compression springs , Tension springs , Leg springs and wire bending parts are used. It should be noted that the tensile strenght This special spring steel wire often does not come close to the values of the standard spring steel wire and is lower Spring forces achieve.

Dynamically highly stressed valve spring steel wire

Spring steel type

VDSiCR

Material name Oteva 70
description The VDSiCr / Oteva 70 is a hardened chrome-silicon alloyed spring steel for cold-formed and high dynamically stressed springs . The oil tempered valve spring steel achieves with a Shot peening solidified surface the best fatigue strength values. However, the operating temperature should not exceed 120 ° C.
Areas of application The VDSiCr is used for springs subject to high dynamic loads such as B. used for valve springs and clutch springs.
Quality standard DIN EN 10270-2
Strength (RM) 1500 to 2230 N / mm²
Max. Operating temperature up to 120 ° C
modulus of elasticity 206 kN / mm²
G module 81,500 N / mm²
density 7.85 kg / dm³
Price index (base 100) 270

Corrosion-resistant spring steel types

Spring steel type

X10CrNi18-8

Material number 1.4310
description X10CrNi18-8 / 1.4310 is an austenitic chrome-nickel spring steel for corrosion-resistant springs with medium and high specific stress.
Due to its special mechanical properties, this material 1.4310 is the classic among stainless spring steels and is often used in the manufacture of corrosion-resistant metal springs. Since this stainless spring steel 1.4310 is easy to magnetize due to cold deformation, this material is not suitable for completely non-magnetic springs.
Areas of application 1.4310 is widely used in the automotive, chemical and petrochemical, food, mechanical engineering, drive technology and electronic equipment industries.
Quality standard DIN EN 10270-3
Strength (RM) 1100 to 2500 N / mm²
Max. Operating temperature -200 to 200 ° C
modulus of elasticity 185 kN / mm²
G module 70000 N / mm²
density 7.9 kg / dm³
spec. electr. resistance 0.73 Ωmm² / m
Price index (base 100) 250

Spring steel type

X7CrNiAl17-7

Material number 1.4568
description X7CrNiAl17-7 / 1.4568 is a rustproof, precipitation-hardenable chrome-nickel-aluminum alloyed spring steel. The spring steel 1.4568 has very good long-term properties and excellent corrosion resistance with minimal distortion after heat treatment. In the hardened state, spring steel 1.4568 has excellent mechanical properties up to 200 ° C.
Areas of application 1.4568 is used in the air and Space industry as well as in high-strength corrosion-resistant applications.
Quality standard DIN EN 10270-3
Strength (RM) 1200 to 2000 N / mm²
Max. Operating temperature -200 to 200 ° C
modulus of elasticity 195 kN / mm²
G module 73,000 N / mm²
density 7.9 kg / dm³
spec. electr. resistance 0.8 Ωmm² / m
Price index (base 100) 600

Spring steel type

X5CrNiMo17-12-2

Material number 1.4401
description X5CrNiMo17-12-2 / 1.4401 is an austenitic chrome-nickel-molybdenum steel with very good corrosion resistance to non-oxidizing acids and media containing chlorine. It is suitable for applications in the food industry and partly in medical technology. Spring steel made of 1.4401 has a lower strength than 1.4310 and 1.4568. On the other hand, the corrosion resistance is significantly higher and the magnetizability is lower.
Areas of application 1.4401 is often used in the food, textile and chemical industries, partly in medical technology and in the area of oils and soaps.
Quality standard DIN EN 10270-3
Strength (RM) 1100 to 1400 N / mm²
Max. Operating temperature -200 to 300 ° C
modulus of elasticity 180 kN / mm²
G module 68,000 N / mm²
density 7.95 kg / dm³
spec. electr. resistance 0.75 Ωmm² / m
Price index (base 100) 400

Non-magnetic and corrosion-resistant types of spring steel

The following copper alloys CuSn6 and CuBe2 are non-magnetic and have very good electrical conductivity and corrosion resistance.

Spring steel type

CuSn6

Material number 2.1020 (CM452K)
description The spring bronze CuSn6 with approx. 6% tin is the most frequently used copper alloy. The spring steel CuSn6 gets its spring properties from cold deformation. The Strength values and with it the Spring forces are significantly lower than the standard spring steel grades 10270-1-SH, -DH and 1.4310. With its very good corrosion resistance and solderability, this spring steel is often used for connectors, contact pins as well as stamped and bent parts and metal springs that require good electrical conductivity. In contrast to brass, the copper alloy CuSn6 can also be used in vacuum technology. Copper beryllium is more suitable for higher mechanical loads or electrical conductivity.
Areas of application CuSn6 is often used in the electrical, paper, pulp, textile and chemical industries as well as in shipbuilding, machine and apparatus engineering.
Quality standard DIN EN 12166
Strength (RM) up to 900 N / mm²
Max. Operating temperature -200 to 80 ° C
modulus of elasticity 115 kN / mm²
G module 42,000 N / mm²
density 8.73 kg / dm³
spec. electr. resistance 0.11 Ωmm² / m
spec. electr. Leitfähigkeit 9.0 m / Ωmm²
Price index (base 100) 410

Spring steel type

CuBe2

Material number 2.1247 (CW101C)
description CuBe2 is a low-alloy copper-beryllium spring steel with higher strength, good conductivity and good mechanical properties. The spring steel made of copper beryllium CuBe2 has good resistance to cold and is therefore suitable for extremely low temperatures close to absolute zero.
Areas of application CuBe2 is often used in the electrical and oil industry, marine technology, aluminum die casting and mold construction.
Quality standard DIN EN 12166
Strength (RM) up to 1150 N / mm²
Max. Operating temperature -200 to 80 ° C
modulus of elasticity 120 kN / mm²
G module 47,000 N / mm²
density 8.8 kg / dm³
spec. electr. resistance 0.078 Ωmm² / m
spec. electr. Leitfähigkeit 16.0 m / Ωmm²
Price index (base 100) 1800

Heat-resistant spring steel grades with very good corrosion resistance

Due to their composition, the nickel-based alloys have a very high heat resistance and corrosion resistance.

Spring steel type

NiCr20Co18Ti

Material number 2.4632 (Nimonic 90)
description The spring material NiCr20Co18Ti 2.4632 / Nimonic 90 is a nickel-chromium-cobalt alloy. Nimonic 90 spring steel has very good creep and heat resistance as well as good resistance to corrosion and oxidation at high temperatures. This spring steel is suitable for this dynamic High temperature applications.
Areas of application Nimonic 90 is widely used in the air and Space industry , used for high temperature springs and in thermal processes.
Quality standard
Strength (RM) up to 1200 N / mm²
Max. Operating temperature -100 to 500 ° C
modulus of elasticity 230 kN / mm²
G module 82500 N / mm²
spec. electr. resistance 1.15 Ωmm² / m
Price index (base 100) 6000

Spring steel type

NiCr15Fe7TiAl

Material number 2.4669 (Inconel X-750)
description The spring steel NiCr15Fe7TiAl / 2.4669 / Inconel X-750 is a nickel-chromium-iron alloy with aluminum and titanium. Inconel X750 spring steel has a high creep and heat resistance at high temperatures of up to 600 ° C. It is corrosion and oxidation resistant but not as strong as Nimonic 90. Since this nickel-chromium alloy is practically cobalt-free, it is often used in reactor technology.
Areas of application Inconel X-750 is used in the aerospace industry, reactor technology, high-temperature springs, components in gas turbines and thermal processes.
Quality standard
Strength (RM) up to 1310 N / mm²
Max. Operating temperature -200 to 550 ° C
modulus of elasticity 214 kN / mm²
G module 75,000 N / mm²
spec. electr. resistance 1.21 Ωmm² / m
Price index (base 100) 3000

Spring steel type

NiMo16Cr15Fe6W4

Material number 2.4610 (Hastelloy C4)
description The spring steel NiMo16Cr15Fe6W4 / 2.4610 / Hastelloy C4 nickel-chromium-molybdenum alloy and, thanks to the combination of chromium with a high molybdenum content, is exceptionally resistant to a variety of chemical media such as B contaminated, reducing mineral acids, chlorides and organic and inorganic chloride-contaminated media. Due to the special chemical composition of Hastelloy C4, the alloy has good structural stability and high resistance to sensitization.
Areas of application Hastelloy C4 is often used for spring components in inorganic chemicals, in the fertilizer industry, in waste incineration plants, in chlorination plants and in the production of acetic acid.
Quality standard DIN 17744
Strength (RM) up to 700 N / mm²
Max. Operating temperature -190 to 450 ° C
modulus of elasticity 211 kN / mm²
G module 81200 N / mm²
spec. electr. resistance 1.24 Ωmm² / m
Price index (base 100) 4100

Assistance in choosing the right spring steel wire

You would like more information about spring steel wire or which spring steel wire is suitable for your Compression spring , Tension spring , Leg spring or bent part fits? You can reach the technical department of Gutekunst Federn by phone (+49) 035 877 227-11 or via service@federnshop.com .

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Spring steel wires and their properties
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